Students are divided into small groups (6 to 12 students) and are presented with a problem. The problem is analysed in the group: what do we already know; what do we not yet know; and what do we still have to find out? (= formulation of learning goals).
Students then work individually or in a group to analyse the problem in-depth (= self-study).
Finally, the group comes together again, students report back and test whether the problem is now better understood.